离子液体在 能源 领域中的应用
Ionic liquids offer a unique suite of properties that make them important candidates for a number of energy related applications. Cation–anion combinations that exhibit low volatility coupled with high electrochemical and thermal stability, as well as ionic conductivity, create the possibility of designing ideal electrolytes for batteries, super-capacitors, actuators, dye sensitised solar cells and thermo-electrochemical cells. In the field of water splitting to produce hydrogen they have been used to synthesize some of the best performing water oxidation catalysts and some members of the protic ionic liquid family co-catalyse an unusual, very high energy efficiency water oxidation process. As fuel cell electrolytes, the high proton conductivity of some of the protic ionic liquid family offers the potential of fuel cells operating in the optimum temperature region above 100 °C. Beyond electrochemical applications, the low vapour pressure of these liquids, along with their ability to offer tuneable functionality, also makes them ideal as CO2 absorbents for post-combustion CO2 capture. Similarly, the tuneable phase properties of the many members of this large family of salts are also allowing the creation of phase-change thermal energy storage materials having melting points tuned to the application. This perspective article provides an overview of these developing energy related applications of ionic liquids and offers some thoughts on the emerging challenges and opportunities.
离子液体在 食品 领域中的应用
Ionic liquids (ILs) have been extensively used in many research and industry fields, including chemical and pharmaceutical applications. Nevertheless, during past years, some works revealed that those green solvents in fact could present certain toxicity levels. This is the reason why some biocompounds from natural sources, such as choline, amino acids, and organic acids, for synthesis of ILs have showed to be alternatives. This means that there is evidence that ILs with low or nontoxic effects could be synthesized, possibly overcoming the major drawback of using them in the food industry. Applications of these third generation ILs, or even the most common ILs, in food processes are scarce and mainly focused on extraction processes and chemical analysis methods. These works have proven that, considering the physical properties of ILs of interest for the food industry such as melting profile, solubility, viscoelasticity, and high biocompatibility, when compared to those commonly used, ILs are alternatives for use in the design of food products and processes. In this context, the present review provides an overview of applications of ILs in the food industry reported to date in the literature, disclosing their synthesis with natural biocompounds. Also, it proposes new applications in the food and bioproducts industries based on the main trends of the recent literature.